Eye problems – Web Xpress http://web-xpress.com/ Mon, 26 Sep 2022 20:31:02 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://web-xpress.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/icon-9-150x150.png Eye problems – Web Xpress http://web-xpress.com/ 32 32 Managing the risks of inevitably biased visual artificial intelligence systems https://web-xpress.com/managing-the-risks-of-inevitably-biased-visual-artificial-intelligence-systems/ Mon, 26 Sep 2022 20:02:55 +0000 https://web-xpress.com/managing-the-risks-of-inevitably-biased-visual-artificial-intelligence-systems/ Scientists have long been developing machines that attempt to mimic the human brain. Just as humans are exposed to systemic injustices, machines learn human stereotypes and cultural norms from sociocultural data, acquiring biases and associations in the process. Our research shows that the bias is reflected not only in the language models, but also in […]]]>

Scientists have long been developing machines that attempt to mimic the human brain. Just as humans are exposed to systemic injustices, machines learn human stereotypes and cultural norms from sociocultural data, acquiring biases and associations in the process. Our research shows that the bias is reflected not only in the language models, but also in the image datasets used to train the computer vision models. As a result, widely used computer vision models such as iGPT and DALL-E 2 generate new explicit and implicit characterizations and stereotypes that perpetuate existing biases about social groups, which further shape human cognition.

These computer vision models are used in downstream applications for security, surveillance, candidate evaluation, border control and information retrieval. Implicit biases also manifest in the decision-making processes of machines, creating lasting impacts on people’s dignity and opportunities. Additionally, nefarious actors can use readily available pre-trained models to impersonate public figures, blackmail, deceive, plagiarize, cause cognitive distortion, and sway public opinion. This machine-generated data poses a significant threat to the integrity of information in the public sphere. Even though machines have advanced rapidly and may offer some opportunities for use in the public interest, their application in societal contexts without proper regulation, scientific understanding and public awareness of their safety and societal implications raises serious ethical concerns. .

Biased gender associations

A good example for exploring such biases appears in gender-biased associations. To understand how gender associations manifest in downstream tasks, we prompted iGPT to complete an image based on a woman’s face. iGPT is a self-supervised model trained on a large number of images to predict the next pixel value, enabling image generation. Fifty-two percent of the auto-completed images had bikinis or low-cut tops. By comparison, men’s faces were auto-completed with career-related suits or clothing 42% of the time. Only seven percent of auto-completed male images featured revealing clothing. To provide a comprehensive analysis of biases in self-supervised computer vision models, we also developed the Image Integration Association Test to quantify implicit model associations that could lead to biased results. Our results reveal that the model contains innocuous associations such as flowers and musical instruments being more pleasant than insects and weapons. However, the model also incorporates biased and potentially harmful social group associations related to age, gender, body weight, and race or ethnicity. Biases at the intersection of race and gender are aligned with theories of intersectionality, reflecting emerging biases not explained by the sum of biases toward race or gender identity alone.

The perpetuation of biases that have been maintained through structural and historical inequalities by these models has important societal implications. For example, biased candidate assessment tools perpetuate discrimination between members of historically disadvantaged groups and predetermine candidates’ economic opportunities. When the administration of justice and the police rely on models that associate certain skin tones, races, or ethnicities with negative valence, people of color wrongly experience life-altering consequences. When computer vision applications directly or indirectly process information related to protected attributes, they contribute to said biases, exacerbating the problem by creating a vicious circle of biases, which will continue unless there are technical, social, and social bias mitigation strategies. and policies are implemented.

State-of-the-art pretrained computer vision models like iGPT are integrated with consequent decision making in complex artificial intelligence (AI) systems. Recent advances in multimodal AI effectively combine language and vision models. The integration of various modalities into an AI system further complicates the security implications of advanced technologies. Although pretrained AI is very expensive to build and operate, publicly available models are freely deployed in business and mission-critical decision-making contexts and facilitate decisions in well-regulated areas, such as administration of justice, education, labor and health care. However, due to the proprietary nature of commercial AI systems and the lack of regulatory oversight of AI and data, there is no standardized transparency mechanism that formally documents when, where and how AI is deployed. . Therefore, the unintended harmful side effects of AI persist long after their authors have been updated or removed.

Establish unacceptable uses of AI, require additional controls and security for high-risk products (such as those in the European Union’s Artificial Intelligence Bill), and standardize the model improvement process for each modality and multimodal combination to issue safety updates and recalls are all promising approaches to address some of the challenges that could lead to irreparable harm. Standards can also help guide developers. For example, the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) published the special publication “Towards a standard for identifying and managing biases in artificial intelligence” in 2022 and a draft AI risk management framework summarizing many of these risks and suggesting standards of reliability, fairness, accountability and transparency.

Third-party audits and impact assessments could also play a major role in holding deployers accountable – for example, a House bill in subcommittee (the Algorithmic Accountability Act of 2022) requires assessments of impact of automated decision systems – but third-party audits with real accountability expectations are rare. Ultimately, AI ethics researchers called for public audits, incident reporting systems, stakeholder participation in system development, and notification to individuals when they are subject to automated decision making.

Regulating prejudice and discrimination in the United States has been an ongoing effort for decades. Policy-level bias mitigation strategies have effectively but slowly reduced bias in the system, and therefore in the minds of humans. Humans and vision systems inevitably learn biases from the large-scale socio-cultural data to which they are exposed. Future efforts to improve fairness and redress historical injustices will therefore depend on increasingly influential AI systems. Developing bias measurement and analysis methods for AI, trained on socio-cultural data, would shed light on the biases of social and automated processes. As a result, actionable strategies can be developed by better understanding the evolution and characteristics of biases. While some visual applications can be put to good use (for example, assistive and accessibility technologies designed to help people with disabilities), we should be cautious about the known and foreseeable risks of AI.

As scientists and researchers continue to develop appropriate methods and metrics to analyze the risks and benefits of AI, collaborations with policymakers and federal agencies are informing evidence-based AI policymaking . Introducing the standards required for trustworthy AI would affect how the industry implements and deploys AI systems. Meanwhile, communicating the properties and impact of AI to direct and indirect stakeholders will raise awareness of how AI affects all aspects of our lives, society, the world and the law. Preventing a techno-dystopian reality requires managing the risks of this socio-technical problem through ethical, scientific, humanistic and regulatory approaches.

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Incidence of dry eye reduced with SGLT2 inhibitors https://web-xpress.com/incidence-of-dry-eye-reduced-with-sglt2-inhibitors/ Sat, 24 Sep 2022 16:01:32 +0000 https://web-xpress.com/incidence-of-dry-eye-reduced-with-sglt2-inhibitors/ A potential benefit of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) may be a reduced incidence of dry eye, the authors of a large retrospective study said. In over 10,000 patients followed for approximately 4 years, the incidence of dry eye was lower in those receiving SGLT2 inhibitors compared to GLP-1 receptor agonists […]]]>

A potential benefit of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) may be a reduced incidence of dry eye, the authors of a large retrospective study said.

In over 10,000 patients followed for approximately 4 years, the incidence of dry eye was lower in those receiving SGLT2 inhibitors compared to GLP-1 receptor agonists (9.0 versus 11.5 events per 1 000 person-years), said Jia-Horung Hung, MD, of National Cheng Kung University Hospital in Taiwan, and colleagues.

As they reported in the study of Open JAMA Networkthe 22% risk reduction (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.68-0.89) was generally maintained in all subgroups, although there were greater risk reductions in men (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.51-0.75) and in patients with better renal function (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.51-0.77).

“Since DED [dry eye disease] affects about one-fifth of patients with T2D and reduces patients’ quality of life, our results with the small absolute risk difference (2.5 per 1,000 person-years) between SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 ARs [receptor agonists] may provide an important reference for clinical decisions regarding the prescription of different antidiabetic drugs to delay or prevent DED in patients with T2DM,” the researchers wrote.

“Furthermore, similar changes in glycemic control and renal function for SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 ARs imply that possible mechanisms underlying the lower incidence of DED due to the use of SGLT2 inhibitors SGLT2 are independent of these factors,” the researchers said.

They explained that chronic inflammation plays a major role in dry eye and that SGLT2 inhibitors may have anti-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface.

Additionally, DED has been associated with pro-inflammatory M1 polarized macrophages and elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines. But SGLT2 inhibitors have been reported to reduce the accumulation of polarized M1 macrophages while inducing the anti-inflammatory phenotype of M2 macrophages. SGLT2 inhibitors have also been shown to lower inflammatory cytokine levels by inducing low-grade serum ketones, the researchers noted.

“This action could explain the greater reduction in DED risk with SGLT2 inhibitors compared to GLP-1 ARs,” Hung’s group said. Previous studies have reported that SGLT2 inhibitors reduce the risk of other inflammatory eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, and glaucoma.

Therefore, “clinicians can also assess the risks of ophthalmologic conditions when selecting antidiabetic drugs as intensification therapy to optimize treatment benefit,” Hung and co-authors suggested.

They retrospectively analyzed information from the largest multi-institutional database in Taiwan, which contained information on 10,038 patients with T2D who received SGLT2 inhibitors and 5,608 who received GLP-receptor agonists. 1. Almost half were women and the average age was around 59. Clinical factors, such as blood sugar control and kidney function, were similar in the two groups.

The primary outcome measure was the incidence of dry eye as determined by International Classification of Diseases codes and prescriptions of drugs used to treat the disease. The researchers used Cox proportional hazards regression models to examine associations between the primary outcome and the type of diabetes medication as well as various clinical factors.

Discussing the greater reductions in dry eye risk seen in men and in patients with better kidney function, the researchers noted that the incidence of dry eye was 1.5 times higher in women than in men. men and twice as high in patients with reduced renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 90 ml/min/1.73 m2) compared to those that perform better. This could have masked the reduced risk in these groups and accentuated it in their counterparts, the investigators explained.

They noted that women might be more susceptible to developing dry eye due to systemic factors, such as lower androgen levels and a higher prevalence of autoimmune diseases. Similarly, patients with renal insufficiency or proteinuria may be at increased risk of developing this condition due to tear hyperosmolarity and increased ocular surface inflammation.

“Because there were no significant differences in the risks of DED between the use of SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists in women with T2DM or patients whose renal function was degraded, the prescription of SGLT2 inhibitors for these populations at high risk of DED should be based on other clinical considerations,” Hung and co-authors advised.

A notable limitation of the study, they said, was the much larger size of the SGLT2 inhibitor group, which may have masked greater heterogeneity in this group compared to the GLP-1 group.

“Furthermore, due to the nature of the retrospective study design, we did not assess clinical types in patients developing DED,” the team wrote. “Further studies with predefined clinical and instrumental diagnostic evaluation are suggested to investigate the role of SGLT2 inhibitors in the incidence of DED.”

  • Jeff Minerd is a freelance medical and science writer based in Rochester, NY.

Disclosures

The study was supported by the National Cheng Kung University Hospital and the Ministry of Science and Technology.

Hung and his co-authors reported no conflict of interest disclosures.

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Zuckerberg and Chan share their vision for AI research at the launch of the Kempner Institute | New https://web-xpress.com/zuckerberg-and-chan-share-their-vision-for-ai-research-at-the-launch-of-the-kempner-institute-new/ Fri, 23 Sep 2022 06:09:28 +0000 https://web-xpress.com/zuckerberg-and-chan-share-their-vision-for-ai-research-at-the-launch-of-the-kempner-institute-new/ Harvard celebrated the launch of the Kempner Institute for the Study of Natural and Artificial Intelligence Thursday at an event with remarks from Meta CEO Mark E. Zuckerberg. Announced in December 2021 by the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, the Kempner Institute seeks to better understand the intersection between natural and artificial intelligence, two fields that are […]]]>

Harvard celebrated the launch of the Kempner Institute for the Study of Natural and Artificial Intelligence Thursday at an event with remarks from Meta CEO Mark E. Zuckerberg.

Announced in December 2021 by the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, the Kempner Institute seeks to better understand the intersection between natural and artificial intelligence, two fields that are “intimately linked”, according to the institute’s website.

Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan ’07 pledged $500 million to establish the institute over the next 15 years. The fund will support new faculty members, IT infrastructure, and resources to enable students to interact between the institute’s various labs.

The institute’s namesake is Zuckerberg’s mother, Karen Kempner Zuckerberg, and grandparents, Sidney and Gertrude Kempner.

“My parents and grandparents focused on the power of the mind and intelligence to try to make the world a better place,” Zuckerberg said Thursday. “We thought it appropriate that this institute bear Kempner’s name, as we hope it will fuel discoveries about the mind and intelligence that will benefit the world for generations to come.”

University President Lawrence S. Bacow praised Zuckerberg and Chan for their knowledge of artificial intelligence and their philanthropic efforts in support of education.

“Mark and Priscilla are quite unique in that they are among the very, very few philanthropic donors in the world who actually have as much expertise in the matter – if not more – than the people they are going to support here,” Bacow said. “They gave us this incredible opportunity for which we are extremely grateful to them.”

According to Chan, the institute will drive progress by following a three-pronged approach of research, computing and education. On the research front, Kempner will study the underlying principles of artificial intelligence and neurobiology and uncover new ideas and problems. The institute will also use edge computing to generate and analyze data on a “really massive scale”, Chan said.

“It will also put this technology directly into the hands of students,” she added. “They will be the first generation in history to use machine learning tools so early in their careers.”

Both Zuckerberg and Chan stressed the importance of putting students and young minds at the forefront of the Kempner Institute. Zuckerberg described the students as “flexible thinkers” and “highly aware” of problems that need to be solved.

“Kempner was created as a big bet on students,” Zuckerberg said. “There are a lot of different ways to do this stuff in academia, but we think the students are really the ones who are going to solve the big problems here.”

The launch event also featured video remarks from several tech giants, including Bill Gates ’77, former Google CEO Eric Schmidt, and Amazon CEO Andy Jassey ’90. Gates, Schmidt and Jassey praised Harvard for investing in the future of AI through the Kempner Institute.

“I absolutely believe that in 10 to 20 years this institute will have produced some of the greatest minds in AI,” Schmidt said.

—Editor Mayesha R. Soshi can be reached at mayesha.soshi@thecrimson.com.

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Homeowners eye up to $200 million for Jackson water crisis https://web-xpress.com/homeowners-eye-up-to-200-million-for-jackson-water-crisis/ Thu, 22 Sep 2022 00:01:26 +0000 https://web-xpress.com/homeowners-eye-up-to-200-million-for-jackson-water-crisis/ Jackson’s 150,000 residents were without drinking water for weeks this summer after the Pearl River flood caused the system’s water pressure to drop. The city has also issued a series of boil water orders throughout the year due to the unsafe water quality. Jackson’s Water The system, which was built in 1914, is in a […]]]>

Jackson’s 150,000 residents were without drinking water for weeks this summer after the Pearl River flood caused the system’s water pressure to drop. The city has also issued a series of boil water orders throughout the year due to the unsafe water quality.

Jackson’s Water The system, which was built in 1914, is in a deplorable state of disrepair, according to a 2020 EPA study. The total cost of upgrading it is unclear, but estimates range up to $1 billion dollars. The city has not developed a long-term plan to solve its problems. Thompson said $200 million is “what seems reasonable” now, absent a plan.

The two Republican senators from Mississippi, Roger Osier and Cindy Hyde Smith, both voiced support for including additional funds for the Jackson water system in the appropriations bill. Earlier this month, Hyde-Smith slammed the Biden administration for not including money for Jackson in its funding request.

None of their offices responded to a request for comment on whether they supported the $200 million figure.

The details: The proposed legislation would not send the money through the federal government’s main drinking water funding mechanism, the EPA’s state revolving fund, but rather through a separate granting authority. This would allow the EPA to work directly with the city, bypassing the state government.

The wording also allows the funds to be used for more than just capital projects, where federal water infrastructure dollars are generally directed. It could also be used to relieve the city of past water debt and to pay for operations and maintenance—items that federal funding is not otherwise allowed to cover.

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Researchers look at Dominion offshore wind farm and whimbrel migration pattern https://web-xpress.com/researchers-look-at-dominion-offshore-wind-farm-and-whimbrel-migration-pattern/ Tue, 20 Sep 2022 15:30:59 +0000 https://web-xpress.com/researchers-look-at-dominion-offshore-wind-farm-and-whimbrel-migration-pattern/ Each summer, a group of brownish, long-billed shorebirds called curlews feed on crabs on the east coast of Virginia before heading south to Brazil. Experts know where this journey begins and where the birds end. Less is known about their exact flight path over the Atlantic Ocean. And in a few years, there could be […]]]>

Each summer, a group of brownish, long-billed shorebirds called curlews feed on crabs on the east coast of Virginia before heading south to Brazil.

Experts know where this journey begins and where the birds end. Less is known about their exact flight path over the Atlantic Ocean. And in a few years, there could be an obstruction there.

Dominion Energy plans to build a wind farm 27 miles off Virginia Beach. It would consist of 176 wind turbines each measuring more than 800 feet – taller than the Washington Monument. The location was previously chosen to be away from most bird migrations, but some species could still be affected, the company and researchers said.

A local team is now studying whimbrels in particular, trying to determine if they are flying where the turbines would be – and if so, if they are flying high enough to pass through them.

“The potential conflict with the turbine field is cause for concern,” said Bryan Watts, director of the Center for Conservation Biology at William & Mary. “It’s an open question…. There may be a conflict, but there may be no conflict at all.

Watts’ team hopes to answer that question, in partnership with the nonprofit Nature Conservancy. Dominion provided approximately $300,000 for the two-year study.

Birds rest on a mudflat off Willis Wharf on the east coast. It is in this area that the researchers recently captured whimbrels for their study.

On a recent morning, the waters were calm and the sun was warm as Watts disembarked from a boat from Willis Wharf on the east coast. He was joined by Alex Wilke, a coastal scientist from the reserve’s Volgenau Virginia Coast Reserve, which runs the migratory bird program.

They took out binoculars at low tide to search for whimbrels in the surrounding mudflats.

It was probably last week that the species could be spotted on the shore; their numbers tend to peak in late July before they begin to fly south.

While here the birds feast on fiddler crabs, with some increasing their body weight by around 50% to make it to South America, Watts said.

The research team spent several weeks in August trapping and tagging whimbrels to track their flight path in the Atlantic. They finally sent 15 birds with tags.

To trap the birds, Wilke said they use mats called slipknot mats. When the bird steps on the trap, it wraps around its leg to prevent it from flying away. Crew members constantly monitor the area, so the birds are not trapped for long. Then the bird is measured, weighed, fitted with a transmitter and released.

Once a day, the transmitter tries to send data through the nearest cell tower, Watts said. If it can’t – like when birds fly far out in the ocean – it stores the data until it can transmit. Researchers can then track the birds via an online dashboard.

This isn’t the first time they’ve tried to hunt down Whimbrels.

About a decade ago, researchers at Eastern Shore attached transmitters to birds, hoping to figure out why their numbers had been declining by about 4% per year since the 1990s. learned more about the whimbrel’s annual cycle, which includes returning to Virginia on their way back from South America and ultimately to the Arctic to breed.

“Projects like this, where we’re sort of working locally but thinking hemispherically, that’s the only way we’re going to learn these important lessons and really be able to effectively protect these species in the future.” , said Wilke.

This time, they are particularly interested in the altitude at which the whimbrels fly. This is data that previous technology did not capture and will help determine if the turbines are a problem.

The Virginia Beach farm will be among the first offshore wind projects in the United States, but there are many elsewhere in the world.

Watts said he tried to assess what others had learned about birds and the offshore wind.

It’s a mixed bag. Some species run into turbines, as has been a problem on land. Others are “evaders,” Watts said, and fly around equipment.

“Birds react in different ways,” he said. “Not all birds are the same in terms of potential benefits and impacts.”

Problems on land often stem from the fact that wind farms are placed in wildlife corridors, he added.

The advantage of a project so far offshore is that it is beyond many migration routes – except for a few, such as the whimbrel.

“That’s what this project is about.”

Researchers recently captured whimbrels for the tagging study in a marsh off Willis Wharf on the east coast.
Researchers recently captured whimbrels for a tagging study in a marsh off Willis Wharf on the east coast.

Two pilot turbines were installed in the Dominion Federal Concession Area in the Atlantic Ocean in the fall of 2020.

Since then, the company has been conducting its own wildlife research — in addition to funding others, largely within regulatory requirements, said Scott Lawton, environmental technical adviser for Dominion.

They learned a lot, he said.

Some things were more expected – like a phenomenon where concrete structures attracted sea life in search of habitat. But the cameras also captured bats and species Dominion didn’t expect so far from land: butterflies, dragonflies and other insects.

The study of corlieu curlews is an extension of the research.

Matt Overton, biological consultant for Dominion’s corporate biology department, said he came from a bird focus group regarding the offshore wind project that included various environmental organizations.

“One of the biggest questions that no one really knows is how high and how high do these birds migrate?” he said. “We don’t want to be in a situation where we have high bird mortality.”

So if there is a problem with the turbines, what happens next?

It depends, but Overton said he doesn’t think the issue will move or stop the project. Instead, officials might need to look to seasonal operational conditions when the birds pass.

While offshore wind farms are expected to become more common along the East Coast in the coming decades, the company and researchers understand that the knowledge gained from the project will be valuable beyond Virginia. But Watts said the east coast is a special place for whimbrels. It is the only significant place where they stop on their way both north and south.

“It appears that, at least for populations that use the West Atlantic flyway, these birds have built their annual cycle around the east coast. So this place is really very important.

Read the original story on the WHRO website.

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What is the rare eye disease she was born with? https://web-xpress.com/what-is-the-rare-eye-disease-she-was-born-with/ Mon, 19 Sep 2022 06:16:02 +0000 https://web-xpress.com/what-is-the-rare-eye-disease-she-was-born-with/ Lady Louise Windsor, 18, was born with a rare eye condition called esotropia, or ‘strabismus’. (Getty Images) Lady Louise Windsor was thrust back into the nation’s spotlight this week after her recent A-level success won her a place at St Andrews University in Scotland. Louise, 18, granddaughter of the Queen and daughter of Prince Edward […]]]>

Lady Louise Windsor, 18, was born with a rare eye condition called esotropia, or ‘strabismus’. (Getty Images)

Lady Louise Windsor was thrust back into the nation’s spotlight this week after her recent A-level success won her a place at St Andrews University in Scotland.

Louise, 18, granddaughter of the Queen and daughter of Prince Edward and Sophie, Countess of Wessex, will study English at the same university as her older cousin, Prince William, who graduated from a prestigious institution in 2005.

Louise has made several public appearances in recent months, most recently accompanying her parents and younger brother, James, Viscount Severn, to the Commonwealth Games swimming events in Birmingham.

She also took part in several events to celebrate the Queen’s Platinum Jubilee in June, including the Trooping the Color parade, after which she appeared on the balcony of Buckingham Palace.

Those who don’t follow the Royal Family closely might not know that Louise – who is one of the most rarely seen family members – was born with a rare eye condition called esotropia, or ‘strabismus’.

What is esotropia?

Esotropia is a condition that causes people’s eyes to look in different directions.

Although in many cases it can come and go without bothering the victim too much, it can cause problems if it happens all the time and is not treated.

Louise has undergone surgeries to repair her eyes, including one that failed, and her mother, Sophie, has previously opened up about her daughter’s condition.

“Premature babies can often squint because the eyes are the last thing in the baby package to really be finalized,” she said. The Sunday Express.

“Her strabismus was quite deep when she was little and it takes time to correct it.

“You have to make sure one eye doesn’t become more dominant than the other, but she’s fine now – her eyesight is perfect.”

Louise had her first operation to correct her eyesight in January 2006, but it was unsuccessful and her strabismus persisted until she was 10 when she was able to correct it.

According to the NHS, “it is important not to ignore a strabismus that happens all the time or occurs after the age of 3 months”.

Strabismus can also occur for a number of reasons. Common triggers for the condition are developmental issues or genetic conditions, but it can also develop as a way for the eyes to try to overcome nearsightedness and nearsightedness.

If left untreated, it can lead to persistent double or blurred vision, as well as lazy eye which can impair sight.

Surgery is one way to treat the condition, but doctors often recommend using glasses or doing regular eye exercises.

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A mouse is not just a mouse https://web-xpress.com/a-mouse-is-not-just-a-mouse/ Sat, 17 Sep 2022 11:06:24 +0000 https://web-xpress.com/a-mouse-is-not-just-a-mouse/ Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of vision loss and blindness in older people in the Western world. The most aggressive form is “wet AMD”, a disease in which the formation of new blood vessels in the underlying choroid of the retina leads to fluid and swelling in the eye. In a […]]]>

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of vision loss and blindness in older people in the Western world.

The most aggressive form is “wet AMD”, a disease in which the formation of new blood vessels in the underlying choroid of the retina leads to fluid and swelling in the eye.

In a new study from Aarhus University that has just been published in the scientific journal Investigative ophthalmology and visual sciences (IOVS), the authors reviewed the last five years of studies in a disease model corresponding to 380 scientific articles. Research into the mechanisms behind disease – and therefore the development of new treatment modalities – is often based on laboratory animals, in which new blood vessels are artificially created in the retina, usually using of lasers.

According to a press release from the University of Aarhus, the review of numerous studies shows an imbalance in the use of laboratory animals; the researchers generally choose to use young, healthy male mice, although they know that the sex and age of the mice play a role in the degree of vessel formation.

Bjørn K. Fabian-Jessing, MD, a doctoral student and first author of the study, noted that mostly young, healthy male mice are used for research on this type of vessel formation.

“It makes sense from an ethical, financial, and time perspective, because mice are inexpensive compared to larger laboratory animals, and studies can be done relatively quickly,” he said in the University press release. “Biological variation can also be limited. However, AMD is a disease that occurs most frequently in older people, and the disease occurs just as frequently in women – perhaps even a little more frequently, when you look at “wet AMD”.

Previous studies have shown a discrepancy between the treatment effects seen in animal studies and in human clinical trials.

“We are apparently seeing a ‘translation gap,’ as the research is not taking place in the most relevant animal model,” Fabian-Jessing said in a statement. “Greater biological variation could be achieved, for example, by using more female mice and/or older animals. This would likely increase the possibility of translating the research into clinical trials – and perhaps, ultimately, reduce the number of laboratory animals, as results from preclinical animal testing would then be easier to extrapolate.

Poor reports

In addition to describing animal models, the article also focuses on the degree of notification.

“We can see that many studies do not report important variables, such as the number of mice used,” Fabian-Jessing said in the release. “This makes it difficult to compare studies and assess the value of the results. This is worrying, because it makes it impossible to reproduce the results, which reduces their reliability.

Call for better guidelines

The university’s press release noted that data in the eye field had not yet been collected and synthesized in this way.

“The new study calls for the development and updating of guidelines for these animal models,” Fabian-Jessing explained. He is supported by Professor Thomas Corydon, who is also behind the study:

“The implementation of concrete guidelines will improve the quality, value and comparability of animal testing, which will naturally be of great benefit to the research, understanding and future treatment of eye disease,” added Thomas Corydon in the communicated.

It encourages leading researchers in the field to develop consensus guidelines, as has already been done for preclinical research in other medical specialties.

Corydon explained that implementing higher methodological standards, greater biological variability within animal models, and a greater degree of relevant and detailed reporting will result in higher quality research that is more directly comparable.

“This way, the overall research field can work better in the same direction – for the benefit of patients, and perhaps with the help of fewer laboratory animals, because there will be fewer wasted experiments”, concluded Corydon.

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Golden Goose Awards: 3 Bizarre Scientific Discoveries That Unexpectedly Benefited Society https://web-xpress.com/golden-goose-awards-3-bizarre-scientific-discoveries-that-unexpectedly-benefited-society/ Wed, 14 Sep 2022 20:10:00 +0000 https://web-xpress.com/golden-goose-awards-3-bizarre-scientific-discoveries-that-unexpectedly-benefited-society/ Sign up for CNN’s Wonder Theory science newsletter. Explore the universe with news about fascinating discoveries, scientific advancements and more. CNN — Discoveries involving a laboratory accident, poisonous snails and a paper scientific instrument are some of the obscure, bizarre or convoluted findings breakthroughs honored Wednesday with awards that celebrate research that ultimately had a […]]]>

Sign up for CNN’s Wonder Theory science newsletter. Explore the universe with news about fascinating discoveries, scientific advancements and more.



CNN

Discoveries involving a laboratory accident, poisonous snails and a paper scientific instrument are some of the obscure, bizarre or convoluted findings breakthroughs honored Wednesday with awards that celebrate research that ultimately had a significant, albeit unexpected, impact on society.

Three teams of scientists have won the 2022 Golden Goose Awards, an award organized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, for their research projects that turned into “wait, what?” moments to pioneering breakthroughs.

“The Golden Goose Award reminds us that potential discoveries could be lurking around every corner and illustrates the benefits of investing in basic research to propel innovation,” said Sudip S. Parikh, AAAS CEO and executive editor of the Science family of journals. .

Here are this year’s award-winning discoveries, which illuminate the unpredictable path of science and the benefits of investing in research that might not immediately pay off.

More than a decade ago, Manu Prakash, a bioengineer at Stanford University, was in the Thai jungle on a field trip for his rabies research when he came up with the idea for a microscope. cheap and easy to use.

“I saw this $50,000 microscope in a jungle in the middle of nowhere, locked in a room. It was an ironic moment. I could see immediately that it was the wrong tool,” said said Prakash, an associate professor and senior fellow at the university’s Woods Institute for the Environment.

Why has this essential scientific equipment that could help diagnose devastating diseases like malaria not been used? It was bulky and difficult to transport, required training to operate, and was difficult to maintain. As delicate and expensive as the instrument is, even skilled technicians can feel nervous about using it, Prakash explained.

Prakash envisioned an inexpensive microscope that could be used by anyone anywhere but was powerful enough to see a single bacterium. Together with his colleague Jim Cybulski, Prakash invented the Foldscope – a flat paper microscope and a single spherical lens.

“It took an immense amount of engineering. In this first phase, I was sitting next to labs with million-dollar microscopes. We wanted to make a microscope at a price of $1.

People initially thought the idea was a bit silly, Prakash said, and getting funding for the work was a challenge.

Fast forward to 2022. The Foldscope isn’t as cheap as a dollar, but at a manufacturing cost of $1.75, it’s a tiny fraction of the price of most lab equipment. The telescope’s final magnification is about 140x, powerful enough to see a malaria parasite in a cell. The instruments have been deployed across the world in a dizzying array of applications. Last year in India, the Foldscope was used to identify a new type of cyanobacteria. The microscope also helped identify fake drugs, Prakash said.

Prakash said Foldscope — and the broader premise of frugal science — has a bigger role to play in a world awash with misinformation: “I want to put science in everyone’s hands. Make it more personal. We have decoupled everyday life from the scientific process.

The Foldscope is powerful enough to see a single bacterium.

As scientists working in the Philippines in the 1970s, biochemists Baldomero Olivera and University of the Philippines Diliman Emeritus Professor Lourdes Cruz struggled to source the right supplies for DNA research.

“We had to find something to do that didn’t require fancy equipment because we didn’t have any,” Olivera, a distinguished professor at the University of Utah School of Biological Sciences, said in a video. produced for the Golden Goose Awards.

Olivera and Cruz came up with what they hoped would be a successful side project. Conical snails are common in the Philippines and they have always fascinated Olivera, who had collected seashells as a child. The couple decided to research the nature of the venom the snails used to paralyze their tiny prey.

The team discovered that the bioactive compounds in the venom were tiny proteins called peptides. After moving to in the United States and teaming up with graduate students from the University of Utah, Dr. Michael McIntosh and the late Craig T. Clark, Olivera and Cruz learned that some of the venom peptides reacted differently in mice than in fish and frogs. In mammals, the compounds were found to be involved in pain sensation rather than muscle paralysis.

“There was this incredible gold mine of compounds,” McIntosh said in the video. He is now a professor and director of research in psychiatry at the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Utah.

Work on a type of compound in venoms, known as omega-conotoxin, led to the development of a powerful painkiller, ziconotide, commercially known as Prialt.

Their work on conotoxins also transformed neuroscience. Other scientists are now explore the possibility of using conotoxins to treat a wide range of diseases, including drug addiction, epilepsy and diabetes.

The most famous laboratory accident in the history of science, when mold contaminated one of Alexander Fleming’s petri dishes, led to the discovery in 1928 of the first antibiotic, penicillin.

Much less well known is the lab accident that helped develop LASIK, a laser procedure to correct vision problems, including nearsightedness and farsightedness. It’s a procedure that has allowed millions of people around the world to give up their glasses for good.

In the early 1990s, Detao Du was a graduate student at the University of Michigan in the laboratory of Gérard Mourou, a French physicist and professor. Morou, with Canadian physicist Donna Strickland, has developed an optical technique that produces short, intense laser pulses that can pierce precise points without damaging the surrounding material. This discovery earned Mourou and Strickland, a professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Waterloo in Canada, the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics.

(Left to right) Dr. Ron Kurtz and Tibor Juhasz commercialized the LASIK technique to correct vision.

One evening while working in the lab, Du accidentally lifted his glasses while aligning the mirrors of a femtosecond laser, then a brand new type of laser that emitted an extremely short light pulse. Du’s eyeball caught a stray ray.

“He came to my office very worried. He was afraid they would close the lab,” said Morou, who encouraged Du to see a doctor.

Du was treated by Dr. Ron Kurtz, then a medical student interning at the University of Michigan’s Kellogg Eye Center.

“When we dilated the eye, what I saw was a very small number of very sharp retinal burns, what we would call, in the very center of his retina,” Kurtz said in a video produced for the Golden Goose. Awards. “I was curious what kind of laser it was.”

Convinced that it could have a medical application, Kurtz met with Morou’s team and ended up conducting research with Du, who had quickly recovered from his injury. After a year, they presented their findings at a optics conference in Toronto in 1994. There they met and teamed up with a researcher who was already studying lasers to correct vision named Tibor Juhasz, then a researcher at the University of California. In 1997, Kurtz and Juhasz founded IntraLase, a company that focused on commercializing the bladeless LASIK technique for corrective eye surgery.

Mourou said he never imagined his precision laser would have applications beyond physics. He also credited the university’s management, which, while insisting on better safety protocols, did not shut down its lab as he feared. Instead, officials funded some of the research that led to the corrective eye surgery technique.

“It took an accident like this to realize a new field,” said Mourou, who added that Du suffered no lasting effects from his injury.

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Dr. William Joseph Dooley Jr. | Washington County Obituaries https://web-xpress.com/dr-william-joseph-dooley-jr-washington-county-obituaries/ Sat, 10 Sep 2022 12:27:00 +0000 https://web-xpress.com/dr-william-joseph-dooley-jr-washington-county-obituaries/ FLAGSTAFF, ARIZONA Dr William Joseph Dooley Jr. Nov. 10, 1942 — Aug. 29, 2022 Dr. William Joseph Dooley Jr. died August 29 due to complications from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig’s disease). He was surrounded by family and friends at his home in Flagstaff, Arizona as he began his walk […]]]>

FLAGSTAFF, ARIZONA

Dr William Joseph Dooley Jr.

Nov. 10, 1942 — Aug. 29, 2022






Dr. William Joseph Dooley Jr. died August 29 due to complications from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig’s disease). He was surrounded by family and friends at his home in Flagstaff, Arizona as he began his walk with God.

Bill was born in West Bend on November 10, 1942. He attended Campion High School in Prairie du Chien, College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachusetts, and Marquette School of Medicine in Milwaukee. He served in the Navy from 1969 to 1975 as a Lieutenant Commander where he completed his residency in ophthalmology.







Flag obituaries

While studying medicine, he met Kathy, the love of his life, to whom he was married for over 52 years. In 1975, they moved to Lake Havasu City, Arizona to open their eye practice, then built a state-of-the-art outpatient surgery center. He has enjoyed serving Lake Havasu and surrounding communities as one of the region’s few eye surgeons and eye disease specialists for over 25 years. Seeing the opportunity to continue serving his community outside of his medical practice, he served on the board of Mohave State Bank (now Glacier Bancorp).

Bill was an incredible husband and father who expressed his love for his family through travel and adventure. Traveling meant waterskiing on the Colorado River; canoeing on Lake Powell; RV camping near Zion National Monument; quad biking on the Glamis sand dunes; explore the National Organ Pipe Monument; snow skiing in Park City; popup trailer camping (in January) in Death Valley. For the past 10 years, Bill and Kathy have enjoyed traveling in their RV or 5th wheel across the country visiting friends and family and playing golf along the way. Bill made sure his family played golf as it was his favorite competitive sport and everyone should be ready for some friendly advice.

There were no obstacles in Bill’s mind for the family to explore together, which led to him obtaining his pilot’s license so the family could travel to the Midwest and Northeast states to better understand the history of our country. He also inspired his children with acts of service and philanthropy, providing free corrective eye surgery to those in need in the 1980s and leading the campaign to rebuild Notre Dame du Lac Catholic Church in the 1990s in Lake Havasu City. Bill was active in the parish of San Francisco de Asis through the Knights of Columbus and the choir. In recent years, woodturning has become a new hobby. To master the necessary skills and help others, he became a founding member of the Peaks Woodturners.

William is survived by Kathleen (Kaddatz) Dooley, and children Kevin Dooley (Heather), Kimberly LaFavers (Rick), Patricia von Kolen (Bill) and 13 grandchildren: Brandon Corke and Andrew Corke, Tabitha, Ellie, April, Ben, Jocelyn, Daniel von Kolen; Austin, Coleson, Ryan, Tyler LaFavers; Siana Dooley. He is survived by his siblings Michael and Thomas Dooley, Mary Newcomb and Patricia Eid.

Services will be held at the Catholic Parish of San Francisco de Asis on Monday, September 26. Rosary at 10 a.m. and Mass at 10:30 a.m. The church is located at 1600 Historic Rte. 66, Flagstaff, AZ 86001. A reception will follow at Forest Highlands Golf Club, Flagstaff, Arizona.

Memorial donations can be made to: San Francisco de Asis Catholic Parish school fund (www.sfdaparish.org), 1600 E. Rte 66, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 and ALS Arizona Chapter (www.alsaz.org), 360 E. Coronado Road, Suite 140 Phoenix, AZ 85004.

To stream live: https://sfdaparish.org. Select “Watch Mass Online”.

Visit www.norvelowensmortuary.com for more information.

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Coave Therapeutics strengthens its management team with the appointments of Catherine Mathis as Vice President of Regulatory Affairs and Julien Berger as Chief Legal Officer https://web-xpress.com/coave-therapeutics-strengthens-its-management-team-with-the-appointments-of-catherine-mathis-as-vice-president-of-regulatory-affairs-and-julien-berger-as-chief-legal-officer/ Tue, 06 Sep 2022 07:00:00 +0000 https://web-xpress.com/coave-therapeutics-strengthens-its-management-team-with-the-appointments-of-catherine-mathis-as-vice-president-of-regulatory-affairs-and-julien-berger-as-chief-legal-officer/ PARIS, September 6, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — Coave Therapeutics (“Coave”), a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on developing breakthrough gene therapies for CNS (central nervous system) and ocular diseases, today announced the appointment of Catherine MathisPharmD, as Vice President of Regulatory Affairs and Julien Bergeras Head of Legal Affairs. Ms. Mathis will define and oversee the regulatory […]]]>

PARIS, September 6, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — Coave Therapeutics (“Coave”), a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on developing breakthrough gene therapies for CNS (central nervous system) and ocular diseases, today announced the appointment of Catherine MathisPharmD, as Vice President of Regulatory Affairs and Julien Bergeras Head of Legal Affairs.

Ms. Mathis will define and oversee the regulatory strategy and operations supporting the advancement of Coave’s programs. Mr. Berger will direct the legal activities of the Company and act as Corporate Secretary.

We are delighted to welcome Catherine and Julien to the Coave team. The newly created regulatory and legal positions demonstrate the company’s growth and the rapid progress we are making with our portfolio of novel coAAV gene therapies focused on CNS and ocular disease. Catherine brings extensive regulatory affairs experience for gene therapy-based programs that will be invaluable as we plan and execute our regulatory strategy for our three CNS programs targeting protein degradation. Julien has extensive experience in representing and advising companies in various legal activities at all stages of the pharmaceutical and biotechnology life cycle, supporting the implementation of operations while ensuring the protection of the rights and interests of companies. Catherine and Julien are key and timely additions to our leadership team and we look forward to working with them as we strive to transform the treatment of CNS diseases with our first-class gene therapy products,said Rodolphe ClervalCEO of Coave Therapeutics.

Catherine MathisPharmD
Catherine has more than 30 years of experience in clinical research and regulatory affairs in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries and has developed a solid expertise for the development of gene therapy from phase 1 to phase 3 in accordance with US and European regulations. . She has conducted numerous regulatory filings, IND meetings and scientific advice with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) and other European National Competent Authorities.

Catherine spent 20 years at Transgene as Senior Director, Head of Regulatory Affairs setting up and leading the regulatory affairs department and overseeing global regulatory activities for the development of Transgene’s gene therapy products. Since Transgene, she has held management and regulatory positions at Voisin Consulting Life Sciences, TxCell (subsidiary of Sangamo Therapeutics), Elsalys Biotech and more recently Enterome.

Catherine holds a doctorate in pharmacy and a master’s degree in applied and fundamental toxicology from the University of Paris. She began her career in clinical research positions at Ipsen and Sanofi Pasteur.

Julien Berger
Julien brings to Coave nearly 20 years of experience in global, regional and local healthcare legal affairs, in corporate, commercial, medical, R&D, clinical operations and mergers and acquisitions. He joins Coave from Galapagos where he served as Director of Senior Legal Counsel, providing legal support and advice to its global teams.

Prior to Galapagos, Julien spent over 15 years in Genzyme’s legal team, most recently as General Counsel at Sanofi Genzyme following its acquisition. Julien developed and led the legal department of the French entity of Genzyme, supporting the growth of the activity in five therapeutic areas, managing the launch of products in addition to supporting the acquisition of Genzyme by Sanofi.

Julien is a graduate in business law from the universities of Lyons and Strasbourg.

About Coave Therapeutics

Coave Therapeutics is a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on developing breakthrough gene therapies for CNS (central nervous system) and ocular diseases.

Coave Therapeutics’ next-generation AAV-Ligand (“ALIGATER”) conjugate platform enables targeted delivery and enhanced gene transduction to improve the efficacy of advanced gene therapies for rare diseases.

The company is advancing a pipeline of novel therapies targeting CNS and eye diseases where targeted gene therapy using chemically modified AAVs (coAAVs) has the potential to be most effective.

Coave Therapeutics, headquartered in Paris, France)is backed by leading international life sciences and strategic investors Seroba Life Sciences, Théa Open Innovation, eureKARE, Fund+, Omnes Capital, V-Bio Ventures, Kurma Partners, Idinvest, GO Capital and Sham Innovation Santé/Turenne.

For more information, visit www.coavetx.com or follow us on LinkedIn

CONTACTS

Therapeutic Coave
Rodolphe ClervalCEO
[email protected]

MEDISTRAV Consulting
Sylvie Berrebi, Eleanor PerkinMark Swallow PhD
[email protected]
Tel: +44 203 928 6900

SOURCECoave Therapeutics

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